Wednesday, December 17, 2014

UPSC 2014 Mains - General Studies Paper 03 for 250 Marks - 17 Dec 2014

UPSC 2014 Mains - General Studies Paper 03  for 250 Marks - 17 Dec 2014
IAS Mains 2014 - General Studies Paper 03  for 250 Marks - 17 Dec 2014 

UPSC Mains-2014: General Studies Paper 3: Economy, Agriculture, Science Tech, Environment & Internal security

  1. GS3: 2014 paper itself
  2. General Studies Paper III in 2013 vs 2014
    1. Economy (5 Qs | 62.5 marks)
    2. Infrastructure & investment (2 Qs | 25 marks)
    3. Agriculture (2 Qs | 25 marks)
    4. Science Tech (3 Qs | 37.5 marks)
    5. Environment (3 Qs | 37.5 marks)
    6. Security (5 Qs | 62.5 marks)
  3. Question Paper: Linear Format
  4. Bogus marketing propaganda

2014 paper itself

  • Easy: You just have to reproduce the mugged up bullet points on the answersheet.
  • Moderate: you have to brainstorm for ideas and invent points to fillup the gaps.
  • Difficult: when hardly 1-2 points can be recalled or invented.
Breakup of Mains-2014 General Studies paper 3
Agriculture to servicesModerateCurrentOpening statement repeatedly surfaced in Hindu after Modi’s make in India that India shifted directly from agriculture to services.
Demographic dividendModerateCurrentsame as above
  • As such APMC is one of the ‘core-theory’ topic of food processing industry and its downstream issues
  • But resurfaced in current since Jaitley budget’s promise to create national market for agriculture.
Rural creditModerate To DifficultBothThis statement is given in many academic books since 80s and 90s (as per google search). Don’t recall anything specific in current though except Nachiket, and random filler on financial inclusion.
land acquisitionEasy To ModerateCurrentAppeared in Jan 2014 Hindus.
capitalism vs inclusive growthModerate To DifficultCurrentStatement lifted from Business world column, 27th June 2014
PPP unattainability and solutionEasyCurrentEconomic survey summary, budget announcement about 3P India.
Urban transportModerate To DifficultCurrentRandomly surfaced during budget, Road safety bill.
FDI in defenseEasyCurrentTheHindu had gone crazier than usual about this issue. So did all the communists- because of Israeli and American companies.
science career not lucrativeM/DCurrentSame as above. Been repeatedly in Hindu columns, after Government made scientists teach a few hours in school every year, INSPIRE scheme etc.)
AntibioticsM/DCurrentAs such topic emerged in 2010s- when Lancet journal blamed “superbug” on India’s lax antibiotic regime. later in 2011 due to MDR-TB, then in late 2013s when Government’s move to make compulsory prescription rules for antibiotics. Topic resurfaced again in Mid-2014 when WHO said its big problem, and experts demanded separate body.
IPR, Copyrights, Trade secretEasy To ModerateTheorytheory topic but resurfaced in current after Modi’s Make in India policy promised to reform all three of them.
Carbon creditM/DCurrentIssue discussed in Business world 21st January 2014, and sufficient bullets available
NDMA guidelines on El-Nino and La-NinaDifficultContemporaryसाला इतना डिटेल में कोन प्रिपेर करता है? [Who prepares in this much detail?] As such points can be ‘invented’ but question requires specific discussion on the said guidelines. Survey and Budget speech mentioned El-Nino preparedness but they mostly threw factual statistics hard to recall in exam.
EIA for pithead plantsM/DContemporary
  • in Mid to late 2013, topic was in news because CIL demanding Government permission from this while states demanding free power from such units, saying pithead plants = pollution, fly ash content, health hazards.
  • But overall no hardcore points. Candidates have to ‘invent’ the points during exam hall
radicalismM/DCurrentBeen in news after ISIS & Al-Qaeda threat to India and US report on counter-terror measures in India
Civil aviationDifficultContemporaryThe context of “space above airspace” is China’s anti-satellite missile testing in July 2014 (and previously in 2007). But difficult to assemble points because question framed from legal-academic point of view.
Illegal migrantsEasy/ModerateContemporaryBeen in news for a long time due to election speeches of Modi and issue of Rohingya migrants
piracy longitudesDifficultContemporaryStatement resurfaced Hindu 14/Jan/14 but not much hardcore points. Same with NewIndianexpress
China pak economic corridor.M/DCurrentTalks were on going since mid-2013s, but official launch news appeared in 1st Dec’14 Hindu. Moral of the story: one should keep reading it even if exam is near
  1. Only one question from theory. 19 questions are of current / contemporary nature, and majority of them appeared in theHindu. Therefore, one should keep habit of reading newspaper on daily basis and maintaining notes out of it, particularly the ‘fodder’ type points from columns.
  2. Majority of questions, essay-ish type with moderate to difficult level- requiring you to brainstorm for points.
  3. Facts, figures, salient features are important for CSAT but gave negligible benefit for Mains-2014.
  4. Verbose questions. For example: Environmental impact assessment studies are increasingly undertaken before project is cleared by the government. Discuss the environmental impacts of coal-fired thermal plants located at Pitheads.
  5. It could be simply asked as “Discuss the environmental impacts of coal-fired thermal plants located at Pitheads.” Opening statement of the statement (shown above in bold) is redundant. Same in many questions. UPSC could save a lot of paper by avoiding such bol-bachchan-giri.

2013 vs 2014

Analysis UPSC General Studies Mains Paper 2014
Some continuity while lots of changes
25 questions, 250 words each20 questions, 200 words each. Length reduced, at least in theory.
Economy question less complicated. Just have to rewrite the mugged up points for FRBM, GST, Companies act etc.Required broad grasp and brain-storming for points. e.g. strategies for urban transport, using technology for agriculture finance and so on.
two questions related to economy laws: companies bill, and FRBMJust one- land acquisition act.
Questions on budget and taxation worth 30 marks.nothing
impact of liberalization askedIgnored.
FDI in multibrand retail asked for 10 marksFDI in defense asked for 12.5 marks
Public health: Fixed drug combination, Glivec.Public health: Antibiotic resistance. Although Ebola not asked.
Science tech portion focused on factual awareness such as 3D printing, FRP composite material, Umpire decision review system.
  • Essay-ish questions asked this time.
  • Nothing from ISRO-MARS, IRNSS-C and truckload of other inventions and gadgets.
  1. Nothing from cropping pattern, irrigation system
  2. nothing from e-technology for farmer
  3. nothing from ‘economics of animal rearing’
  4. nothing from linkages of organized crime with terrorism
  5. nothing from ‘mandates of various security forces’
Nothing this year either.
food processing and land reforms askedNothing
IT-security, social media questions asked.Nothing
Environment-disaster Management worth 45marks asked.37.5 marks
money laundering askedIgnored despite all the election speeches, G20 BEPS, Supreme court SIT, P-notes, Hedge funds. But then again, 2013’s question asked entire overview, so hardly anything new left to ask.
Internal security in 50 marks.Weightage and complexity both increased- questions like space above airspace, high risk piracy. and even latest current affairs
anyways, let’s check the paper.

INSTRUCTIONS for General studies paper-3 (GS3)

  1. Duration 3 hours. Total marks 250.
  2. There are TWENTY (20) questions printed both in HINDI and ENGLISH.
  3. Answer the questions in NOT MORE THAN 200 words each. Contents of the answer is more important than its length. All questions carry equal marks.
  4. All the questions are compulsory.
  5. Answers must be written in the medium authorized in the Admission Certificate which must be stated clearly on the cover of this Question-cum-Answer (QCA) Booklet in the space provided. No marks will be given for answers written in a medium other than the authorized one.
  6. Word limit in questions, wherever specified, should be adhered to.
  7. Any page or portion of the page left blank in the answer book must be clearly struck off.

Economy (5 Qs | 62.5 marks)

  1. Normally countries shift from agriculture to industry and then later to services, but India shifted directly from agriculture to services. What are the reasons for the huge growth of services vis-a-vis industry in the country? Can India become a developed country without a strong industrial base?
  2. While we found India’s demographic dividend, we ignore the dropping rates of employability. What are we missing while doing so? Where will the jobs that India desperately needs come from? Explain.
  3. The right to fair compensation and transparency land acquisition, rehabilitation and resettlement act, 2013 has come into effect from 1 January 2014. What implication would it have on industrialization and agriculture in India?
  4. Capitalism has guided the world economy to unprecedented prosperity. However, it often encourages shortsightedness and contributes to wide disparities between the rich and the poor. In this light, would it be correct to believe and adopt capitalism driving inclusive growth in India? Discuss. (Statement lifted from Business-world column, 27th June 2014)
  5. Foreign direct investment in the defence sector is now said to be liberalized. What influence this is expected to have on Indian defence and economy in the short and long run?

Infrastructure & investment (2 Qs | 25 marks)

Syllabus Topic: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.; Investment models.
  1. Explain how private public partnership agreements, in longer gestation infrastructure projects, can transfer unsuitable liabilities to the future. What arrangements need to be put in place to ensure that successive generations’ capacities are not compromised?
  2. National urban transport policy emphasizes on moving people instead of moving vehicles. Discuss critically the success of various strategies of the government in this regard.

Agriculture (2 Qs | 25 marks)

  1. There is also a point of view that agriculture produce market committees (APMCs) set up under the state acts have not only impeded the development of agriculture but also have been the cause of food inflation in India. Critically examine.
  2. “In the villages itself no form of credit organisation will be suitable except the cooperative society.” – All Indian rural credit survey. Discuss this statement in the background of agriculture finance in India. What constrain and challenges do financial institutions supplying agricultural finances? How can technology be used to better reach and serve rural clients?

Science Tech (3 Qs | 37.5 marks)

  1. Can overuse and the availability of antibiotics without doctor’s prescription, the contributors to the emergence of drug-resistant diseases in India? What are the available mechanisms for monitoring and control? Critically discuss the various issues involved.
  2. Scientific research in Indian universities is declining, because a career in science is not as attractive as our business operations, engineering or administration, and the universities are becoming consumer oriented. Critically comment.
  3. In a globalised world, intellectual property rights assume significance and are a source of litigation. Broadly distinguish between the terms – copyrights, patents and trade secrets.

Environment (3 Qs | 37.5 marks)

  1. Should the pursuit of carbon credit and clean development mechanism set up under UNFCCC be maintained even through there has been a massive slide in the value of carbon credit? Discuss with respect to India’s energy needs for economic growth. Issue discussed in Business world 21st January 2014, and sufficient bullets available
  2. Drought has been recognized as a disaster in view of its party expense, temporal duration, slow onset and lasting effect on various vulnerable sections. With a focus on the September 2010 guidelines from the National disaster management authority, discuss the mechanism for preparedness to deal with the El Nino and La Nina fallouts in India.
  3. Environmental impact assessment studies are increasingly undertaken before project is cleared by the government. Discuss the environmental impacts of coal-fired thermal plants located at Pitheads.

Security (5 Qs | 62.5 marks)

  1. The diverse nature of India as a multi-religious and multi-ethnic society is not immune to the impact of radicalism which has been in her neighborhood. Discuss along with the strategies to be adopted to counter this environment. (Been in news after Al-Qaeda threat to India and US report on counter-terror measures in India).
  2. International civil aviation laws provide all countries complete and exclusive severity over the airspace above the territory. What do you understand by airspace? What are the implications of these laws on the space above this airspace? Discuss the challenges which this poses and suggests ways to contain the threat.
  3. How illegal transborder migration does pose a threat to India’s security? Discuss the strategies to curb this, bring out the factors which give impetus to such migration. (Been in news for a long time due to election speeches of Modi and issue of Rohingya migrants.)
  4. In 2012, the longitudinal marking of the high-risk areas for piracy was moved from 65° East to 78° east in the Arabian Sea by International Maritime organisation. What impact does this have on India’s maritime security concerns? (Statement resurfaced Hindu14/Jan/14 but not much hardcore points. Same with NewIndianexpress)
  5. China and Pakistan have entered into an agreement for development of an economic corridor. What thread does it dispose for India’s security? Critically examine. (Talks were on going since mid-2013s, but official launch news appeared in  1st Dec’14 Hindu. Moral of the story: one should keep reading it even if exam is near.)

Bogus marketing propaganda*

  • Since UPSC did not ask straightforward questions such as salient features of agro-forestry, Mars missions, IRNSS-C, cyclone hudhud, biotechnology, tonnes of stupid IT-electronics and space inventions. Hence a Lot of hard-labour gone to waste from my side in writing, and from your side in memorizing them.
  • But in economy-agriculture-security portion, there was good amount of material scattered around.
1first question has two sub-questions:
  1. Why services fare better than (mfg) industries.
  2. Can India become developed without focusing on industries?
Random points scattered here and there in the summaries of economic survey and make in India revision note.
8/12.5 because scattered and have to invent points to fillup the gaps.
2Demographic dividend but where will the jobs come?
  • Survey ch.10: jobs will come from tourism.
  • Survey Ch.9 by focusing on MSME, textile-handloom sector.
  • Revision note: Jobs will come from Make in India, factory-labour reforms, after skilling people under Din Dayal and giving loans to their SHGs etc.
3PPP problem and solution.
  • Problem angles: overleveraged firms bidding for long-term projects, can’t complete due to subprime crisis and cost-escalations, can’t redraw contracts, NPA, infra-bottlenecks, GDP slowdown.
  • Solution angles: 3P-India, flexible PPP contracts, traffic equilibrium etc. from economic survey summary and BOT-EPC from revision note.
4APMC and inflation angles.
  1. Food processing series
  2. Economic survey ch.8 summary
12.5/12.5 because direct points available.
5Agriculture finance problem.
  • Nachiket identified the problems faced by financial institutions: (1) debt waiver making farmers indisciplined, (2) the ‘middleman’ model failed (3) March rush (4) loans cornered by rich farmers in rich states benefiting. (5) and Rajan bhai identified banking correspondence agents playing mischief, hence can’t trusted with loan papers.
  • How can technology be used to serve rural clients? Have to invent ideas: USSD for mobile banking, Direct benefit transfer, Rupay-card of Jan dhan for overdrafting, combining NASA-TOPs with agro-loans etc.
8/12.5 because scattered nature and have to invent points to fillup the gaps.
6FDI in defense article
  • Foreigners can’t get Management control so less chances of technology transfer.
  • Government permitted beyond 49% but on CCS’s discretion over what is “modern state of art technology”. Otherwise 49+% would help in technology transfer.
6/12.5 because only two angles mentioned without going in-depth.
7Patent vs Copyright difference given in WIPO article. + Some filler in Make in India revision note. But it doesn’t cover “trade secret”. Hence 2/3rd utility.8/12.5
8India strategies to counter radicalism
  • From US report on Indian counter terrorism covers the steps already taken. And its negative points can be used to ‘inventing’ new points about future-strategies.
  • Al-Qaeda threat to India- explains why India is becoming ripe ground for radicalism.
8/12.5 because scattered and have to invent points to fillup the gaps.
9Illegal migrants. Rohingya migrant security-problem and remedies covered verbatim. and assuming that
  • 6 marks=Bangladeshi angles
  • 4 marks= Rohingya
  • 2.5 marks for misc. Nepali, Sri-Lankan etc.

Total Aukaat79.5/250
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