Saturday, October 24, 2009
Monday, October 19, 2009
Steve Jobs Stanford Commencement Speech 2005
This video is provided by Stanford University. Steve Jobs, co-founder of Apple Computer and Pixar Animation Studios addresses the Stanford graduates about staying true to your dreams, never giving up and doing what you love. This speech is truly inspiring.
Thanks for viewing. Read the text, if you are interested.
Stanford Report, June 14, 2005
‘You’ve got to find what you love,’ Jobs says
Studios, delivered on June 12, 2005.
I am honored to be with you today at your commencement from one of the finest universities in the world. I never
graduated from college. Truth be told, this is the closest I’ve ever gotten to a college graduation. Today I want to tell
you three stories from my life. That’s it. No big deal. Just three stories.
The first story is about connecting the dots.
I dropped out of Reed College after the first 6 months, but then stayed around as a drop-in for another 18 months or so
before I really quit. So why did I drop out?
It started before I was born. My biological mother was a young, unwed college graduate student, and she decided to
put me up for adoption. She felt very strongly that I should be adopted by college graduates, so everything was all set
for me to be adopted at birth by a lawyer and his wife. Except that when I popped out they decided at the last minute
that they really wanted a girl. So my parents, who were on a waiting list, got a call in the middle of the night asking:
“We have an unexpected baby boy; do you want him?” They said: “Of course.” My biological mother later found out
that my mother had never graduated from college and that my father had never graduated from high school. She
refused to sign the final adoption papers. She only relented a few months later when my parents promised that I would
someday go to college.
And 17 years later I did go to college. But I naively chose a college that was almost as expensive as Stanford, and all
of my working-class parents’ savings were being spent on my college tuition. After six months, I couldn’t see the value
in it. I had no idea what I wanted to do with my life and no idea how college was going to help me figure it out. And
here I was spending all of the money my parents had saved their entire life. So I decided to drop out and trust that it
would all work out OK. It was pretty scary at the time, but looking back it was one of the best decisions I ever made.
The minute I dropped out I could stop taking the required classes that didn’t interest me, and begin dropping in on the
ones that looked interesting.
It wasn’t all romantic. I didn’t have a dorm room, so I slept on the floor in friends’ rooms, I returned coke bottles for the
5¢ deposits to buy food with, and I would walk the 7 miles across town every Sunday night to get one good meal a
week at the Hare Krishna temple. I loved it. And much of what I stumbled into by following my curiosity and intuition
turned out to be priceless later on. Let me give you one example:
Reed College at that time offered perhaps the best calligraphy instruction in the country. Throughout the campus every
poster, every label on every drawer, was beautifully hand calligraphed. Because I had dropped out and didn’t have to
take the normal classes, I decided to take a calligraphy class to learn how to do this. I learned about serif and san serif
typefaces, about varying the amount of space between different letter combinations, about what makes great
typography great. It was beautiful, historical, artistically subtle in a way that science can’t capture, and I found it
None of this had even a hope of any practical application in my life. But ten years later, when we were designing the
first Macintosh computer, it all came back to me. And we designed it all into the Mac. It was the first computer with
beautiful typography. If I had never dropped in on that single course in college, the Mac would have never had multiple
typefaces or proportionally spaced fonts. And since Windows just copied the Mac, its likely that no personal computer
would have them. If I had never dropped out, I would have never dropped in on this calligraphy class, and personal
computers might not have the wonderful typography that they do. Of course it was impossible to connect the dots
looking forward when I was in college. But it was very, very clear looking backwards ten years later.
Again, you can’t connect the dots looking forward; you can only connect them looking backwards. So you have to trust
that the dots will somehow connect in your future. You have to trust in something — your gut, destiny, life, karma,
whatever. This approach has never let me down, and it has made all the difference in my life.
My second story is about love and loss.
I was lucky — I found what I loved to do early in life. Woz and I started Apple in my parents garage when I was 20. We
worked hard, and in 10 years Apple had grown from just the two of us in a garage into a $2 billion company with over
4000 employees. We had just released our finest creation — the Macintosh — a year earlier, and I had just turned 30.
And then I got fired. How can you get fired from a company you started? Well, as Apple grew we hired someone who I
thought was very talented to run the company with me, and for the first year or so things went well. But then our
visions of the future began to diverge and eventually we had a falling out. When we did, our Board of Directors sided
with him. So at 30 I was out. And very publicly out. What had been the focus of my entire adult life was gone, and it
I really didn’t know what to do for a few months. I felt that I had let the previous generation of entrepreneurs down - that
I had dropped the baton as it was being passed to me. I met with David Packard and Bob Noyce and tried to apologize
for screwing up so badly. I was a very public failure, and I even thought about running away from the valley. But
something slowly began to dawn on me — I still loved what I did. The turn of events at Apple had not changed that one
bit. I had been rejected, but I was still in love. And so I decided to start over.
I didn’t see it then, but it turned out that getting fired from Apple was the best thing that could have ever happened to
me. The heaviness of being successful was replaced by the lightness of being a beginner again, less sure about
everything. It freed me to enter one of the most creative periods of my life.
During the next five years, I started a company named NeXT, another company named Pixar, and fell in love with an
amazing woman who would become my wife. Pixar went on to create the worlds first computer animated feature film,
Toy Story, and is now the most successful animation studio in the world. In a remarkable turn of events, Apple bought
NeXT, I returned to Apple, and the technology we developed at NeXT is at the heart of Apple’s current renaissance.
And Laurene and I have a wonderful family together.
I’m pretty sure none of this would have happened if I hadn’t been fired from Apple. It was awful tasting medicine, but I
guess the patient needed it. Sometimes life hits you in the head with a brick. Don’t lose faith. I’m convinced that the
only thing that kept me going was that I loved what I did. You’ve got to find what you love. And that is as true for your
work as it is for your lovers. Your work is going to fill a large part of your life, and the only way to be truly satisfied is to
do what you believe is great work. And the only way to do great work is to love what you do. If you haven’t found it yet,
keep looking. Don’t settle. As with all matters of the heart, you’ll know when you find it. And, like any great relationship,
it just gets better and better as the years roll on. So keep looking until you find it. Don’t settle.
My third story is about death.
When I was 17, I read a quote that went something like: “If you live each day as if it was your last, someday you’ll most
certainly be right.” It made an impression on me, and since then, for the past 33 years, I have looked in the mirror
every morning and asked myself: “If today were the last day of my life, would I want to do what I am about to do
today?” And whenever the answer has been “No” for too many days in a row, I know I need to change something.
Remembering that I’ll be dead soon is the most important tool I’ve ever encountered to help me make the big choices
in life. Because almost everything — all external expectations, all pride, all fear of embarrassment or failure - these
things just fall away in the face of death, leaving only what is truly important. Remembering that you are going to die is
the best way I know to avoid the trap of thinking you have something to lose. You are already naked. There is no
reason not to follow your heart.
About a year ago I was diagnosed with cancer. I had a scan at 7:30 in the morning, and it clearly showed a tumor on
my pancreas. I didn’t even know what a pancreas was. The doctors told me this was almost certainly a type of cancer
that is incurable, and that I should expect to live no longer than three to six months. My doctor advised me to go home
and get my affairs in order, which is doctor’s code for prepare to die. It means to try to tell your kids everything you
thought you’d have the next 10 years to tell them in just a few months. It means to make sure everything is buttoned up
so that it will be as easy as possible for your family. It means to say your goodbyes.
I lived with that diagnosis all day. Later that evening I had a biopsy, where they stuck an endoscope down my throat,
through my stomach and into my intestines, put a needle into my pancreas and got a few cells from the tumor. I was
sedated, but my wife, who was there, told me that when they viewed the cells under a microscope the doctors started
crying because it turned out to be a very rare form of pancreatic cancer that is curable with surgery. I had the surgery
and I’m fine now.
This was the closest I’ve been to facing death, and I hope its the closest I get for a few more decades. Having lived
through it, I can now say this to you with a bit more certainty than when death was a useful but purely intellectual
No one wants to die. Even people who want to go to heaven don’t want to die to get there. And yet death is the
destination we all share. No one has ever escaped it. And that is as it should be, because Death is very likely the
single best invention of Life. It is Life’s change agent. It clears out the old to make way for the new. Right now the new
is you, but someday not too long from now, you will gradually become the old and be cleared away. Sorry to be so
dramatic, but it is quite true.
Your time is limited, so don’t waste it living someone else’s life. Don’t be trapped by dogma — which is living with the
results of other people’s thinking. Don’t let the noise of others’ opinions drown out your own inner voice. And most
important, have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. They somehow already know what you truly want to
become. Everything else is secondary.
When I was young, there was an amazing publication called The Whole Earth Catalog, which was one of the bibles of
my generation. It was created by a fellow named Stewart Brand not far from here in Menlo Park, and he brought it to
life with his poetic touch. This was in the late 1960’s, before personal computers and desktop publishing, so it was all
made with typewriters, scissors, and polaroid cameras. It was sort of like Google in paperback form, 35 years before
Google came along: it was idealistic, and overflowing with neat tools and great notions.
Stewart and his team put out several issues of The Whole Earth Catalog, and then when it had run its course, they put
out a final issue. It was the mid-1970s, and I was your age. On the back cover of their final issue was a photograph of
an early morning country road, the kind you might find yourself hitchhiking on if you were so adventurous. Beneath it
were the words: “Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish.” It was their farewell message as they signed off. Stay Hungry. Stay
Foolish. And I have always wished that for myself. And now, as you graduate to begin anew, I wish that for you.
Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish.
Thank you all very much.
Thursday, October 15, 2009
Randy Pausch reprising his “Last Lecture”
11:32 - 1 year ago
New: see Randy’s book about his “Last Lecture” at www.cs.virginia.edu/~robins/Randy_Book.html Randy Pausch reprising his inspirational “Last Lecture” on the Oprah Show (Oct 22, 2007). See the full-length version of this short Oprah Show reprise at www.cs.virginia.edu/robins/Randy . Randy Pausch (www.randypausch.com) is a virtual reality pioneer, human-computer interaction researcher, co-founder of CMU’s Entertainment Technology Center (www.etc.cmu.edu), and creator of the Alice (www.alice.org) software project. High-resolution downloadable versions of Randy’s videos can be found at www.cs.virginia.edu/robins/Randy
Dying 47-Year-Old Professor Gives Exuberant ‘Last Lecture’
1:44:08 - 2 years ago
Randy Pausch Almost all of us have childhood dreams: for example, being an astronaut, or making movies or video games for a living. Sadly, most people don’t achieve theirs, and I think that’s a shame. I had several specific childhood dreams, and I’ve actually achieved most of them. More importantly, I have found ways, in particular the creation (with Don Marinelli), of CMU’s Entertainment Technology Center (etc.cmu.edu), of helping many young people actually *achieve* their childhood dreams. This talk will discuss how I achieved my childhood dreams (being in zero gravity, designing theme park rides for Disney, and a few others), and will contain realistic advice on how *you* can live your life so that you can make your childhood dreams come true, too.
Inspirational Speech by Dr. Randy Pausch On the Oprah Winfrey Show: The Last Lecture. Dr. Pausch Passed Away On July 25, 2008
We, the members of Hobby and Adventure UNESCO Club, Bedre Foundation for Non-Formal Education, Research and Training and the faculty of these institutions pledge to fight for the cause of Greener Earth
Tuesday, October 13, 2009
N.V. Krishnan of Deepak Book House Chitradurga
(Neelavara Vasudevarao Krishnan - 17-01-1940 to 12-10-2009)
passed away on 12 Oct. 2009, in Bangalore
Your kind words, timely guidance, help, concern showed,
everything will be remembered by us, the members of UNESCO Club Chitradurga. We are here to carry the torch you lit in our hearts. Your message is with us.
It is a loss to Chitradurga. Your services to Jana Bharathi Vidyamandira, Veera Bhoomi, Many Organisations, Publishing Industry have left a deep mark here.
May the Almighty give strength to his family to bear the loss.
Monday, October 12, 2009
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2009
12 October 2009
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel for 2009 to
Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA,
"for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons"
Oliver E. Williamson
University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA,
"for his analysis of economic governance, especially the boundaries of the firm"
Economic governance: the organization of cooperation
Elinor Ostrom has demonstrated how common property can be successfully managed by user associations. Oliver Williamson has developed a theory where business firms serve as structures for conflict resolution. Over the last three decades these seminal contributions have advanced economic governance research from the fringe to the forefront of scientific attention.
Economic transactions take place not only in markets, but also within firms, associations, households, and agencies. Whereas economic theory has comprehensively illuminated the virtues and limitations of markets, it has traditionally paid less attention to other institutional arrangements. The research of Elinor Ostrom and Oliver Williamson demonstrates that economic analysis can shed light on most forms of social organization.
Elinor Ostrom has challenged the conventional wisdom that common property is poorly managed and should be either regulated by central authorities or privatized. Based on numerous studies of user-managed fish stocks, pastures, woods, lakes, and groundwater basins, Ostrom concludes that the outcomes are, more often than not, better than predicted by standard theories. She observes that resource users frequently develop sophisticated mechanisms for decision-making and rule enforcement to handle conflicts of interest, and she characterizes the rules that promote successful outcomes.
Oliver Williamson has argued that markets and hierarchical organizations, such as firms, represent alternative governance structures which differ in their approaches to resolving conflicts of interest. The drawback of markets is that they often entail haggling and disagreement. The drawback of firms is that authority, which mitigates contention, can be abused. Competitive markets work relatively well because buyers and sellers can turn to other trading partners in case of dissent. But when market competition is limited, firms are better suited for conflict resolution than markets. A key prediction of Williamson's theory, which has also been supported empirically, is therefore that the propensity of economic agents to conduct their transactions inside the boundaries of a firm increases along with the relationship-specific features of their assets.
Read more about this year's prize
|Information for the Public (pdf)|
|Scientific Background (pdf)|
In order to read the text you need Acrobat Reader.
|Links and Further Reading|
Elinor Ostrom, US citizen. Born in 1933 in Los Angeles, CA, USA. Ph.D. in Political Science in 1965 from the University of California, Los Angeles, USA. Arthur F. Bentley Professor of Political Science and Professor at the School of Public and Environmental Affairs, both at Indiana University, Bloomington, USA. Founding Director of the Center for the Study of Institutional Diversity, Arizona State University, Tempe, USA.
Oliver E. Williamson, US citizen. Born in 1932 in Superior, WI, USA. Ph.D. in Economics in 1963 from Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Edgar F. Kaiser Professor Emeritus of Business, Economics and Law and Professor of the Graduate School, both at the University of California, Berkeley, USA.
The Prize amount: SEK 10 million, to be shared equally between the Laureates.
Contact: Erik Huss, Press Officer and Editor, phone +46 8 673 95 44, +46 70 673 96 50, firstname.lastname@example.org
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, founded in 1739, is an independent organization whose overall objective is to promote the sciences and strengthen their influence in society. The Academy takes special responsibility for the natural sciences and mathematics, but endeavours to promote the exchange of ideas between various disciplines.
Information for the Public
Scientific BackgroundScientific Background
Links to other sites
Links to other sites
Friday, October 9, 2009
The Nobel Peace Prize for 2009
The Norwegian Nobel Committee has decided that the Nobel Peace Prize for 2009 is to be awarded to President Barack Obama for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples. The Committee has attached special importance to Obama's vision of and work for a world without nuclear weapons.
Obama has as President created a new climate in international politics. Multilateral diplomacy has regained a central position, with emphasis on the role that the United Nations and other international institutions can play. Dialogue and negotiations are preferred as instruments for resolving even the most difficult international conflicts. The vision of a world free from nuclear arms has powerfully stimulated disarmament and arms control negotiations. Thanks to Obama's initiative, the USA is now playing a more constructive role in meeting the great climatic challenges the world is confronting. Democracy and human rights are to be strengthened.
Only very rarely has a person to the same extent as Obama captured the world's attention and given its people hope for a better future. His diplomacy is founded in the concept that those who are to lead the world must do so on the basis of values and attitudes that are shared by the majority of the world's population.
For 108 years, the Norwegian Nobel Committee has sought to stimulate precisely that international policy and those attitudes for which Obama is now the world's leading spokesman. The Committee endorses Obama's appeal that "Now is the time for all of us to take our share of responsibility for a global response to global challenges."
Oslo, October 9, 2009
HE ADMINISTRATION • PRESIDENT BARACK OBAMA
Thursday, October 8, 2009
The Nobel Prize in Literature 2009
Herta Müller was born on August 17, 1953 in the German-speaking town Nitzkydorf in Banat, Romania. Her parents were members of the German-speaking minority in Romania. Her father had served in the Waffen SS during World War II. Many German Romanians were deported to the Soviet Union in 1945, including Müller's mother who spent five years in a work camp in present-day Ukraine. Many years later, in Atemschaukel (2009), Müller was to depict the exile of the German Romanians in the Soviet Union. From 1973 to 1976, Müller studied German and Romanian literature at the university in Timişoara (Temeswar). During this period, she was associated with Aktionsgruppe Banat, a circle of young German-speaking authors who, in opposition to Ceauşescu’s dictatorship, sought freedom of speech. After completing her studies, she worked as a translator at a machine factory from 1977 to 1979. She was dismissed when she refused to be an informant for the secret police. After her dismissal, she was harassed by Securitate.
Müller made her debut with the collection of short stories Niederungen (1982), which was censored in Romania. Two years later, she published the uncensored version in Germany and, in the same year, Drückender Tango in Romania. In these two works, Müller depicts life in a small, German-speaking village and the corruption, intolerance and repression to be found there. The Romanian national press was very critical of these works while, outside of Romania, the German press received them very positively. Because Müller had publicly criticized the dictatorship in Romania, she was prohibited from publishing in her own country. In 1987, Müller emigrated together with her husband, author Richard Wagner.
The novels Der Fuchs war damals schon der Jäger (1992), Herztier (1994; The Land of Green Plums, 1996) and Heute wär ich mir lieber nicht begegnet (1997; The Appointment, 2001) give, with chiselled details, a portrait of daily life in a stagnated dictatorship. Müller has given guest lectures at universities, colleges and other venues in Paderborn, Warwick, Hamburg, Swansea, Gainsville (Florida), Kassel, Göttingen, Tübingen and Zürich among other places. She lives in Berlin. Since 1995 she has served as a member of Deutsche Akademie für Sprache und Dichtung, in Darmstadt.
Works in German
|Niederungen. – Bukarest : Kriterion-Verlag, 1982 ; Berlin : Rotbuch-Verlag, 1984|
|Drückender Tango : Erzählungen. – Bukarest : Kriterion-Verlag, 1984 ; Reinbek bei Hamburg : Rowohlt, 1996|
|Der Mensch ist ein groβer Fasan auf der Welt : Roman. – Berlin : Rotbuch-Verlag, 1986|
|Barfüβiger Februar : Prosa. – Berlin : Rotbuch-Verlag, 1987|
|Reisende auf einem Bein. – Berlin : Rotbuch-Verlag, 1989|
|Der Teufel sitzt im Spiegel. – Berlin : Rotbuch-Verlag, 1991|
|Der Fuchs war damals schon der Jäger : Roman. – Reinbek bei Hamburg : Rowohlt, 1992|
|Eine warme Kartoffel ist ein warmes Bett. – Hamburg : Europäische Verlagsanstalt, 1992|
|Der Wächter nimmt seinen Kamm : vom Weggehen und Ausscheren. – Reinbek bei Hamburg : Rowohlt, 1993|
|Herztier : Roman. – Reinbek bei Hamburg : Rowohlt, 1994|
|Hunger und Seide : Essays. – Reinbek bei Hamburg : Rowohlt, 1995|
|In der Falle. – Göttingen : Wallstein-Verlag, 1996|
|Heute wär ich mir lieber nicht begegnet. – Reinbek bei Hamburg : Rowohlt, 1997|
|Der fremde Blick oder Das Leben ist ein Furz in der Laterne. – Göttingen : Wallstein-Verlag, 1999|
|Im Haarknoten wohnt eine Dame. – Reinbek bei Hamburg : Rowohlt, 2000|
|Heimat ist das, was gesprochen wird. – Blieskastel : Gollenstein, 2001|
|Der König verneigt sich und tötet. – München : Hanser, 2003|
|Die blassen Herren mit den Mokkatassen. – München : Hanser, 2005|
|Atemschaukel : Roman. – München : Hanser, 2009|
Works in English
|The Passport / translated by Martin Chalmers. – London : Serpent's Tail, 1989. – Translation of Der Mensch ist ein großer Fasan auf der Welt|
|The Land of Green Plums / translated by Michael Hofmann. – New York : Metropolitan Books, 1996. – Translation of Herztier|
|Traveling on One Leg / translated from the German by Valentina Glajar and André Lefevere. – Evanston, Ill. : Northwestern University Press, 1998. – Translation of Reisende auf einem Bein|
|The Appointment / translated by Michael Hulse and Philip Boehm. – New York : Metropolitan Books, 2001. – Translation of Heute wär ich mir lieber nicht begegnet|
Works in French
|L'homme est un grand faisan sur terre / traduit de l'allemand par Nicole Bary. – Paris : Maren Sell, 1988. – Traduction de: Der Mensch ist ein groβer Fasan auf der Welt|
|Le renard était déjà le chasseur / traduit de l'allemand par Claire de Oliveira. – Paris : Seuil, 1997. – Traduction de: Der Fuchs war damals schon der Jäger|
|La convocation / traduit de l'allemand par Claire de Oliveira. – Paris : Métailié, 2001. – Traduction de: Heute wär ich mir lieber nicht begegnet|
Works in Spanish
|En tierras bajas / traducción del alemán de Juan José del Solar. – Madrid : Siruela, 1990. – Traducción de: Niederungen|
|El hombre es un gran faisán en el mundo / traducción del alemán de Juan José del Solar. – Madrid : Siruela, 1992. – Traducción de: Der Mensch ist ein groβer Fasan auf der Welt|
|La piel del zorro / traducción de Juan José del Solar. – Barcelona : Plaza & Janés, 1996. – Traducción de: Der Fuchs war damals schon der Jäger|
|La bestia del corazón / traducción de Bettina Blanch Tyroller. – Barcelona : Mondadori, 1997. – Traducción de: Herztier|
Works in Swedish
|Flackland / översättning av Susanne Widén-Swartz. – Stockholm : Alba, 1985. – Originaltitel: Niederungen|
|Människan är en stor fasan på jorden : en berättelse / översättning av Karin Löfdahl. – Stockholm : Alba, 1987. – Originaltitel: Der Mensch ist ein groβer Fasan auf der Welt|
|Barfota februari : berättelser / översättning av Karin Löfdahl. – Stockholm : Alba, 1989. – Originaltitel: Barfüβiger Februar|
|Resande på ett ben / översättning av Karin Löfdahl. – Stockholm : Alba, 1991. – Originaltitel: Reisende auf einem Bein|
|Redan då var räven jägare / översättning av Karin Löfdahl. – Stockholm : Bonnier Alba, 1994. – Originaltitel: Der Fuchs war damals schon der Jäger|
|Hjärtdjur / översättning av Karin Löfdahl. – Stockholm : Bonnier Alba, 1996. – Originaltitel: Herztier|
|Kungen bugar och dödar / översättning: Karin Löfdahl. – Stockholm : Wahlström & Widstrand, 2005 – Originaltitel: Der König verneigt sich und tötet|
|Idag hade jag helst inte velat träffa mig själv / översättning: Karin Löfdahl. – Stockholm : Wahlström & Widstrand, 2007 – Originaltitel: Heute wär ich mir lieber nicht begegnet|
|Die erfundene Wahrnehmung : Annäherung an Herta Müller / Norbert Otto Eke (Hg.). – Paderborn : Igel, 1991|
|Der Druck der Erfahrung treibt die Sprache in die Dichtung : Bildlichkeit in Texten Herta Müllers / Ralph Köhnen (Hrsg.). – Frankfurt am Main : Lang, 1997|
|Herta Müller / edited by Brigid Haines. – Cardiff : University of Wales, 1998|
|Predoiu, Grazziella, Faszination und Provokation bei Herta Müller : eine thematische und motivische Auseinandersetzung. – Frankfurt am Main : Lang, 2000|
|Dascalu, Bogdan Mihai, Held und Welt in Herta Müllers Erzählungen. – Hamburg : Kovac, 2004|
|Bozzi, Paola, Der fremde Blick : zum Werk Herta Müllers. – Würzburg : Königshausen & Neumann, 2005|
|Patrut, Iulia-Karin, Schwarze Schwester - Teufelsjunge : Ethnizität und Geschlecht bei Paul Celan und Herta Müller. – Köln : Böhlau, 2006|
The Swedish Academy
My phone number is given under the heading MSc Wildlife Biology in DH Education today. Please feel free to contact these sites for more information.
Monday, October 5, 2009
Wednesday, October 7, 2009
for making our Nation Proud.
Nobel Prize for Chemistry 2009
If you want to listen to the Interview with Sri Venkataraman Ramakrishnan please do click the following link
Website of the Nobel winner
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan: A profile
For a brief sketch of Ventakaraman Ramakrishnan
Please click on the following site
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India
|Fields||Biochemistry and Biophysics and Computational Biology|
|Institutions||MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, England, Trinity College, Cambridge|
|Notable awards||Nobel Prize in Chemistry (2009).|
Venkatraman "Venki" Ramakrishnan (Tamil: வெங்கட்ராமன் ராமகிருஷ்ணன்; born 1952) is a structural biologist at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology of the Medical Research Council located in Cambridge, England. He is a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. He was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, along with Thomas A. Steitz and Ada Yonath.
Early life and education
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan was born in 1952 in Chidambaram in Tamil Nadu, India, where he completed his pre-university studies at Annamalai University. Later, he obtained his B.Sc. in Physics from Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, India, in 1971 and then his Ph.D. in Physics from Ohio University in 1976. He then spent a year taking classes in biology at the University of California, San Diego while transitioning from theoretical physics to biology.
Background and research work
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan has published more than 95 research papers, the earliest being in 1977. In 2000, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan's laboratory determined the structure of the 30S subunit of the ribosome and its complexes with several antibiotics. He also published three papers about his ribosome research in the August 26, 1999, and September 21, 2000, issues of the journal Nature. This was followed by studies that provided structural insights into the mechanism that ensures the fidelity of protein biosynthesis. More recently, his laboratory has determined the atomic structure of the whole ribosome in complex with its tRNA and mRNA ligands. Ramakrishnan is also known for his past work on histone and chromatin structure.
Ramakrishnan is known for his work on the determination of the three-dimensional structure of the small ribosomal subunit and its complexes with substrates and antibiotics, which has shed light on the mechanism that ensures the fidelity of protein synthesis, and for his work on the structures of chromatin-related proteins.
Ramakrishnan was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry along with Thomas A. Steitz and Ada Yonath. Ramakrishnan will be awarded the Nobel Prize along with one-third of the total prize money of 10 million Swedish kronor ($1.4 million), in a ceremony in Stockholm on December 10. Thus, he became the seventh Indian or person of Indian origin to win the Nobel Prize. Official Nobel Foundation website telephone interview audio with him is available here.  He is a Fellow of the Royal Society, and a member of EMBO and the U.S. National Academy of Sciences.
- ^ "Venki Ramakrishnan". Laboratory of Molecular Biology. 2004. http://www.mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk/ramak/. Retrieved 2009-10-07.
- ^ "New Trinity Fellows". The Fountain, Trinity College Newsletter. https://alumni.trin.cam.ac.uk/design/pdfs/Fountainspring09.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-07.
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